What is angiogensis and what benefit does Squalamax� provide?

What is angiogensis and what benefit does Squalamax� provide?

Figure 1: Angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is a function in the body where unhealthy cells develop their own blood vessel structure in order to nourish and support themselves (See Figure 1.). The immune system in response uses certain compounds in the body to naturally counter angiogenesis. This normal body function is called anti-angiogenesis. If the immune system is successful in carrying out this designed function of nature, unhealthy cells can not survive. However, if the body is deficient in these vital compounds, anti-angiogenesis can not occur. Therefore, it is important to supplement the body with natural anti-angiogenesis factors such as squalamine which is abundant in the Squalamax� product.

How much Squalamax� should I take daily?
We suggest you take 2 capsules daily (one capsule twice daily on an empty stomach), unless your health challenge is more serious.
NOTE: Preferably take with Ultramarine Shark Liver Oil Gelcaps for optimum benefits.

In which types of cancer tumors does angiogenesis (i.e. growth of new blood vessels needed to support the growth of tumors) occur?
abdominal tumor
abdominal tumors
acute macular degeneration
adrenal gland tumor
adrenal gland tumors
adrenal tumor
adrenal tumors
american brain tumor
anal tumors
animal tumor
animal tumors
anti tumor
back tumors
benign bone tumors
benign brain tumor
benign breast tumors
benign liver tumors
benign tumor
benign tumors
bladder tumor
bladder tumors
blood tumor
blue cell tumor
bone tumor
bone tumors
bowel cancer
bowel tumors
brain cancer
brain stem tumor
brain stem tumors
brain tumor
brain tumors
brainstem tumors
breast cancer tumor
breast cancer tumors
breast cancers
breast cyst
breast cysts
breast tumor
breast tumors
brenner tumor
brian tumor
brian tumors
brown tumor
cancer and tumors
cancer brain tumors
cancer tumor
cancer tumors
cancerous tumor
cancerous tumors
canine brain tumors
canine mast cell tumor
canine mast cell tumors
canine tumors
carcinoid tumor
carcinoid tumors
cardiac tumors
carotid body tumor
carotid body tumors
cat tumor
cat tumors
cats tumors
cell phone tumors
cell phones and brain tumors
cell phones brain tumors
cell tumor
cervical tumors
chest tumors
cns tumors
colon cancer
colon tumor
colon tumors
cystic tumors
cysts and tumors
dermoid tumor
dermoid tumors
desmoid tumor
desmoid tumors
dog tumor
dog tumors
dogs tumors
duke brain tumor duke university brain tumor
endocrine tumor
endocrine tumors
eye tumor
eye tumors
eyelid tumors
facial tumors
fat tumor
fat tumors
fatty tumor
fatty tumors
feline tumors
fibriod tumors
fibrod tumors
fibroid tumor
fibroid tumors
fibroid tumors of the uterus
fibroid tumors uterus
fibroid uterine tumors
fibroids tumors
fibrous tumor
fibrous tumors
fish tumors
foot tumors
fribroid tumors
fybroid tumors
gastrointestinal stromal tumor
gastrointestinal stromal tumors
germ cell tumor
germ cell tumors
giant cell tumor
giant cell tumors
gist tumor
gist tumors
glomus tumor
glomus tumors
granular cell tumor
granulosa cell tumor
hamster tumors
hand tumors
head and neck tumors
head tumor
head tumors
heart tumor
heart tumors
hepatic tumors
information on brain tumors
inoperable brain tumors
intestinal tumors
intracranial tumors
islet cell tumor
islet cell tumors
jacob houck tumor
kidney tumor
kidney tumors
klatskin tumor
knee tumors
krukenberg tumor
leg tumors
leydig cell tumor
liver tumor
liver tumors
liver tumors
lung cancer
lung tumor
lung tumors
macular degeneration
malignant brain tumor
malignant brain tumors
malignant cell
malignant cells
malignant tumor
malignant tumors
mammary tumors
mass cell tumor
mass cell tumors
mast cell tumor
mast cell tumors
mast cell tumors dogs
mast cell tumors in dogs
mediastinal tumors
merkel cell tumor
metastatic brain tumors metastatic tumors
mixed mullerian tumor
mouth tumors
mucinous tumor
mullerian tumor
muscle tumor
muscle tumors
nasal tumor
nasal tumors
neck tumor
neck tumors
nerve sheath tumor
nerve sheath tumors
nerve tumor
nerve tumors
neuroectodermal tumor
neuroendocrine tumor
neuroendocrine tumors
ocular tumors
odontogenic tumors
oral tumors
orbital tumors
ovarian cancer
ovarian tumor
ovarian tumors
ovary tumor
p53 tumor
pancoast tumor
pancoast tumors
pancreas tumor
pancreas tumors
pancreatic tumor
pancreatic tumors
parathyroid tumors
parotid gland tumor
parotid gland tumors
parotid tumor
parotid tumors
pediatric brain tumor
pediatric brain tumors
pediatric tumors
pelvic tumors
peripheral nerve sheath tumor
pet tumor
pet tumors
phyllodes tumor
phyllodes tumors
phylloides tumor
pineal gland tumors
pineal tumor
pineal tumors
pituatary tumor
pituatary tumors
pituitary gland tumor
pituitary gland tumors
pituitary tumor
pituitary tumor
pituitary tumors
pitutary tumors
posterior fossa tumors
primary brain tumors
primitive neuroectodermal tumor
prostate cancer
prostate tumor
prostate tumors
pseudo tumor cerebri
pseudo tumors
psuedo tumor cerebri
rat tumors
rats tumors
rectal tumor
rectal tumors
renal tumor
renal tumors
rhabdoid tumor
round cell tumor
round cell tumors
salivary gland tumor
salivary gland tumors
shrinking tumors
sinus tumor
sinus tumors
skin tumor skin tumors
soft tissue tumor
soft tissue tumors
solid tumor
solid tumors
spinal cord tumor
spinal cord tumors
spinal tumor
spinal tumors
spindle cell tumor
spindle cell tumors
spine tumor
spine tumors
spleen tumors
stomach tumor
stomach tumors
stromal tumor
stromal tumors
teeth tumors
testicular tumor
testicular tumors
throat tumor
throat tumors
thyroid tumor
thyroid tumors
tongue tumors
treatment for brain tumors
treatment of brain tumors
trophoblastic tumor
tumor antigen
tumor brain
tumor cancer
tumor cerebral
tumor cerebri
tumor liver
tumor lung
tumor lysis
tumor necrosis
tumor necrosis factor
tumor necrosis factor alpha
tumor uterus
tumor virus
tumors dogs
tumors in rats
tumors of the brain
tumors of the pancreas
tumors of the spine
tumors of the uterus
uterine fibroid tumor
uterine fibroid tumors
uterine tumor
uterine tumors
uterus tumor
uterus tumors
vaginal tumors
vascular tumor
vascular tumors
warthin's tumor
wilms tumor
wilm's tumor
wilms tumors

Anal Pain

Anal Pain
Piles / Hemorrhoid

A 39 year old Caucasian with serious bleeding from external piles was seen by a general surgeon who operated on him in February 2005. Following surgery, he continued to have severe pain two months after surgery.

He was seen and re-operated by the same surgeon for piles but continued to have severe pain even on sitting three months after surgery and was referred to see me. Clinical examination showed that he had a previously unrecognized chronic anal fissure with large external skin tags.

He underwent an excision of the skin tags and a simple procedure called a lateral sphincterotomy to cure the chronic fissure and was totally well the following day. Expert examination and accurate diagnosis and surgery will ensure prompt healing and minimal complications in all cases undergoing surgery.

Difficult Rectal Cancer
Rectal Cancer

A 50 year old Caucasian man first complained of anal symptoms including bleeding and anal pain in May 2005. He was seen in Russia initially and was diagnosed to have a very low rectal cancer about 2 cm from the anal verge. Complete removal including removal of the anus was advised in Russia. The patient was adamant against this and sought treatment with me. Clinical examination showed a very muscular and large man who was otherwise very fit for his age.

As the cancer was indeed 2 cm from the outside skin edge an abdominal-perineal excision or removal of the rectum and anus was discussed with him. He was firmly fixed against the idea that he will have a permanent colostomy bag on his abdomen. As all scanning showed that the tumour was localized without spread to other parts of his body, it was felt that it might be possible to attempt an inter-sphincteric dissection of his anus and remove the cancer totally by this method and allow him to preserve anal function.

This operation was performed successfully on the 3rd August. The cancer was removed with a good margin and no chemotherapy or radiotherapy was needed. He remains very well with good ability to control his anus on follow up.

Advanced Rectal Cancer
Cancerous Polyp Cancerous Polyp

A 39 year Chinese man with locally advanced rectal cancer. Mr Chia first presented with difficulty in motion in Jan 2005. He was then in severe pain and had bleeding whenever he went to the toilet. He also passed motion with difficulty and pain. Clinical examination showed a huge rectal mass fixed to the pelvis and protruding into the anal canal. The lower end of the cancer was only 2 cm from the bottom of the anus. He saw a surgeon elsewhere and he was advised that no treatment was possible and that he should go home and await the end.

Mr Chia became desperate until a friend recommended him to see me at Mt Elizabeth Hospital. Clinical examination showed Mr Chia to be a well built man in his late 30’s. He was fit and physical examination showed no abnormality except for the huge fixed cancer in the pelvis and rectum. CT films showed gross infiltration outside the rectum and a huge mass was immediately clearly seen. The cancer was clearly not completely respectable at this stage. He was advised to undergo chemotherapy and radiotherapy in an effort to shrink the cancer. This strategy worked well.

Six weeks of chemo and radiotherapy shrunk the mass completely. After 6 weeks, no residual cancer was felt on rectal examination. Further X rays showed spread elsewhere and Mr Chia was advised for rectal surgery. An ultra-low anterior resection was done on Oct 2006. Histological examination of the resected specimen showed complete clearance of cancer. Mr Chia is expected to have a good prognosis.

Redo of Blotched Up Surgery
Cancerous Polyp

A 63 year old man in another country had a colonoscopy and removal of a colonic polyp on the 10th Jan 2003. The following day, he complained of severe abdominal pain and was hospitalized and underwent emergency surgery on the 13th January 2003. Surgery was performed during which the perforated removal of polyp site was sutured closed and a tube inserted into his caecum.

Unfortunately this too perforated and a second operation was performed on the 19th Jan 2005. However, this was not done in proper fashion and again, an emergency surgery had to be done. The patient became frightened of surgery in his own country and flew to see me on the 11 Jan 2005. Examination showed that he had two stomas(intestinal openings) on his abdomen, one on the right and one on the left. There was also a very large anterior hernia. A complete repair and restoration of all his stomas was suggested by me.

The patient was anxious about more surgery but after consideration, underwent surgery by me on the 15 July 2005. This difficult surgery was successful as the two stomas were restored back to the abdomen and the hernia repaired. The patient made a good recovering and flew home.

Intra-Abdominal Cancer Up Surgery
Cancerous Polyp Cancerous Polyp
Cancerous Polyp Cancerous Polyp

A 28 year old man with huge intra-abdominal cancer. Mr TF first presented in April 2005 in his own country with a problem of a large intra-abdominal swelling. X rays revealed a very large intra-abdominal tumour and he was operated upon. Although 2.5 kg of tumour was removed, the surgery was evidently incomplete. Histological examination showed this to be a desmoplastic small cell tumour. The patient was given a combination of adriamycin, ifosfamide, vincristine, dacarbazine and mesna. However, after 5 cycles, residual mesenteric thickening was still evident. The patient relapsed in Feb 2006. CT scan then showed large soft tissue mass in the pelvis invading the rectum, sigmoid colon, prostate, seminal vesicles and numerous intra-abdominal nodules with a larger mass in the upper abdomen.

He received further chemotherapy but the masses increased in size. In July 2006 he developed severe pain in the buttocks and constipation and examination showed a very large abdominal mass arising from the pelvis. Palliative radiotherapy was given in an attempt to shrink the tumour and he received a total of 4500 cgy in 25 fractions. However repeat CT scans on 17 August 2006 showed further increase in the size of the masses. He was told to go elsewhere for treatment and was finally referred to see me at Mt Elizabeth Hospital.

I first saw Mr TF on the 12 Oct 2006. Physical examination showed a very large abdominal mass up to the level of the umbilicus. Rectal examination showed a hard fixed pelvic mass. CT scans showed a 20 cm large pelvic tumour, a 13 cm abdominal tumour, a 5 cm splenic hilar mass and multiple smaller abdominal masses. He was initially tried on further chemotherapy but no response was noted.

Finally as the pain and constipation became progressively worse, surgery was performed on the 15 Feb 2007. During surgery, despite the hugeness of the mass, expert dissection and manipulation enabled all the masses to be totally removed. Mr TF now has a very good chance of complete cure.

Multimodal treatment of mesothelioma

Doctors specializing in mesothelioma treatment frequently adopt a multimodal approach: they treat a patient with a combination of therapies. Due to the relative lack of effectiveness of single-modality treatment in affecting patient survival, the multimodal combination of treatments holds more promise for survival of malignant mesothelioma patients. For an over view of single-mode and multimodal treatment regimens, see the abstract of "Treatment of Malignant Mesothelioma" by M.T. Jaklitsch, S.C. Grondin, and D.J. Sugarbaker and published in the World Journal of Surgery in 2001.

The December 1999 issue of the medical journal, Chest, published a clinical case presentation that illustrates a fairly typical multimodal treatment. The patient was a 52-year-old man with an early diagnosis of Stage I pleural mesothelioma. Doctors performed a pleurectomy (i.e. surgery) and then delivered intrapleural doses of chemotherapy drugs. Then he received additional localized radiation and chemotherapy. Two years after the surgery he did not show evidence of the tumor.

The author concluded that "Aggressive trimodality therapy for mesothelioma is presented as a successful treatment option." (R. Buono - "Mesothelioma Clinical Presentation", Chest 1999; 116:444S-445S)

In recent years, there has been some progress made in the management of malignant mesothelioma, particularly in the area of combination of agents and treatment methods used. More details can be found in this interview with mesothelioma medical expert, Dr. Nicholas Vogelzang: "New Directions for the Treatment of Mesothelioma: An Expert Interview" (Oncology 6(1), 2003).

The following discussion of mesothelioma treatments is organized into separate sections (surgery, photodynamic therapy, radiation, etc.) so that each component of a combination of treatments (multimodality therapy) can be better understood.

Further Information:

"Multimodality Treatments for Mesothelioma?" by W. Eberhardt, (27th Annual congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology).

Two presentations evaluating multimodal treatment of mesothelioma were part of the program of the 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 12-15, 2001 (San Francisco). The first study, by M. Keohan, et al., used an agressive regimen for their phase II study of trimodal therapy for peritoneal mesothelioma. The second study, by J.V. Juturi, et al., investigated intracavitary paclitaxel in a multimodality management of malignant pleural mesothelioma; two earlier cooperative group studies using this treatment method yielded response rates of 0% and 9%, respectively, in patients with mesothelioma. For information about obtaining ASCO asbstracts, check their webpage.

A.M. Boylan - "Mesothelioma: new concepts in diagnosis and management" in Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, March 2000; 6(2):157-163. An interesting discussion about the difficulties of diagnosing mesothelioma; the controversies about staging mesothelioma; and whether the improved survival rates of some new treatments indicate that these treatments are more effective or are explained by patient selection.

D. H. Sterman, MD, et. al. - "Advances in the Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma" in Chest 1999; 116:504-520; (see abstract) This article discusses the roles of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and combined modality approaches in the treatment of pleural mesotheliomas. Promising new avenues may modify the therapeutic nihilism that is rampant among clinicians dealing with mesothelioma.

Types of Mesothelioma Treatment: